ADA Toilet Guidance

In the United States, it is considered a human right for people with disabilities to participate in the society, and the typical one is the Rehabilitation Act in 1973 and ADA in 1990. Originally the Civil Rights Act in 1964 prohibited discrimination by race, gender, country of origin, or religion. The laws guarantee full participation of people with disabilities in American society.


ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act):

ADA Act came into force in 1990, primarily to help out people in wheelchairs and the visually impaired from the daily difficulties, demanding for facilities that are difficult for people with disabilities to use. It is an epoch-making law that guarantees equal employment opportunities and full use of facilities and services without discrimination. The scope of ADA is extensive and provides for the protection of the rights of persons with disabilities.

It is to eliminate barriers (barrier-free) wherever lots of people gather such as restaurants or shopping centres. Even if facilities and services are compliant to the law, there are still remaining inconveniences in various aspects of daily life.

However it is heard that these laws were indirectly enacted with the intention of increasing the number of injured and sick soldiers in the Vietnam War and the Gulf War. In order to expand the opportunities of those people, let them contribute in more active roles in the society. Therefore, somewhat it seems to focus on limb disorders such as wheelchair users.



1.Shiohiko Takahashi,,”Toilet Encyclopedia”,ISBN-10 : 4760146083,Kashiwa Publisher,2015.

2.Yoshihiko Kawauchi,” Universal Design: A Reconsideration of Barrier Free”, ISBN Number 0-9708358-7-6, Lulu publisher, 2009. (referenced on 13 Oct. 2020)

3.Yoshihiko Kawauchi,”Creating a Barrier-Free System for Universal Design; To Realize Spiral Up”, ISBN978-4-7615-2409-8, Gakugei publisher, 2007 (In Japanese)


Toilet Rooms


Issued in April 2020


This guide explains requirements in the ADA Standards for toilet rooms.

Required Compliance [§213]

Plumbing and building codes address the number and type of toilet rooms and toilet fixtures required for a facility. The ADA Standards, on the other hand, do not address the number of toilet rooms or fixtures required for a facility, but instead specify which ones must be accessible where provided (Fig.1). In new construction, access is required to all toilet rooms, including those for employees. However, where single user toilet rooms are clustered in one location, at least half for each use must comply (§213.2., Ex. 4). In the case of single user portable units, access is required to at least 5% at each cluster, excluding those on construction sites for construction personnel which are fully exempt (§213.2, Ex. 3, §203.2).



Advancing Full Access and Inclusion for All

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[§213.2]               Unisex (Single-Use or Family) Toilet Rooms

[§223.1, §805.4]   Medical Care and Long-Term Care Facilities

[§202.2]               Additions

[§202.3]               Alterations

[§202.4]               Alterations and Additions to Primary Function Areas

[§202.5, §213]      Alterations to Qualified Historic Facilities

[§213.3.2, §604]   Water Closets

[§604.5, §609]      Grab Bars

(ICC A117.1 Standard)     Vertical Grab Bar

[§604.7]               Toilet Paper Dispensers

Example Single User Toilet Room

[§404]    Doors

[§304, §603.2.1]  Turning Space

Approximate Room Dimensions

Example: Lavatory Opposite Water Closet

[§205, §309]        Dispensers and Receptacles,

[§213.3.7, §603.4]Coat Hooks and Shelves

[§226, §902]        Baby Changing Tables

Private Toilet Rooms Accessed through a Private Office

Water Closets in Residential Dwelling Units

[§604.1, §604.8,§604.9]   Water Closets and Toilet Compartments for Children’s Use

Portable Toilet Units

Multi-User Toilet Rooms

[§213.3.1, §604.8] Wheelchair Accessible Toilet Compartments

[§404, §604.8.1.2] Compartment Doors

[§604.8.1]            Toilet Compartments Designed for Children’s Use

End-of-Row Toilet Compartment

[§603, §604.8]     Toilet Compartment with a Lavatory

[§213.3.1, §604.8] Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartment

[§213.3.3, §605]   Urinals

Common Questions

Water Closets

Toilet Compartments

Lavatories and Mirrors












ADA トイレ向けガイドライン








このガイドラインは、ADA基準に沿ったトイレの必要要件[§213]を纏めて説明しています.配管および建築基準法では、施設に必要とされるトイレおよびトイレ設備の数と形態について定義しています。 一方ADA基準では、施設に必要なトイレや備品の数については触れていませんが、その代わりに提供されている場所での,アクセシビリティ化を定義しています(図.1)。

新築の場合には、従業員用トイレも含むすべてのトイレにアクセシビリティ化に対応する必要があります。 ただし個室のトイレが1つの場所に複数集まっている場合は、少なくとも半分がこの基準に準拠している必要があります(§213.2、例4)。個人使用の可搬型ユニットの場合、建設現場での建設要員向けのトイレを除いて、各場所では少なくとも5%のアクセシビリティ化が必要です(§213.2、例3、§203.2)。










(ICC A117.1標準)垂直型取手



























The UNITED STATES ACCESS BOARD issued a guideline for toilet rooms in April 2020, so the table of contents is listed below. Please refer the following URL in details



  1. 高橋志保彦 編著,「トイレ大事典」,ISBN-10 : 4760146083,柏書房,2015.
  2. 川内美彦,「ユニバーサル・デザイン,バリアフリーへの問いかけ」,ISBN4-7615-2258-5,学芸出版社,2001.
  3. 川内美彦,「ユニバーサル・デザイン,バリアフリーの仕組みをつくる スパイラルアップを実現するために」,ISBN978-4-7615-2409-8,学芸出版社,2007.